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2019考研初试英语一试题

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  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) ......on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Today, we live in a world where GPS systems...... and batteries can die faster than we realize. 3 you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you 4 can’t find a north, a few tricks may help you navigate 5 to civilization, one of which is to follow the land.

  When you find yourself 6 a trail, but not in a completely 7 area of land, you have to answer two questions: ...... and on supplies of fresh water.

  9 , if you head downhill, and...... for familiar sights—you may be

  11 how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.

  Another 12 : Climb high ......Head toward the tree 16 to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for 17 light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.

  18 , assuming you’re lost in ...... and other features can 20 you to civilization.

  1. [A] Few [B] More [C] Some [D] All

  2. [A] put [B] take [C] run [D] come

  3. [A] Since [B] Until [C] Though [D] If

  4. [A] formally [B] literally [C] gradually [D] relatively

  5. [A] around [B] away [C] back [D] next

  6. [A] onto [B] along [C] across [D] off

  7. [A] unattractive [B] unfamiliar [C] unchanged [D] uncrowded

  8. [A] way [B] point [C] site [D] place

  9. [A] Instead [B] Yet [C] So [D] Besides

  10. [A] immediately [B] eventually [C] unexpectedly [D] intentionally

  11. [A] frightened [B] annoyed [C] surprised [D] confused

  12. [A] problem [B] result [C] view [D] option

  13. [A] Above all [B] For example [C] On average [D] In contrast

  14. [A] spot [B] avoid [C] bridge [D] separate

  15. [A] from [B] under [C] beyond [D] through

  16. [A] posts [B] breaks [C] shades [D] links

  17. [A] hidden [B] mysterious [C] artificial [D] limited

  18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] Incidentally [D] Generally

  19. [A] memories [B] belongings [C] notes [D] marks

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D......

  Text 1

  Financial regulators in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” ......

  “Short-termism,” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist, Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economics, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “children ......

  The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high ......

  In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shorter attention spans in financial markets. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in a speech this week.

  In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “a substantial part”......

  Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder ......

  21. According to Paragraph 1, one ......

  [A] enhance bankers’ sense of responsibility

  [B] help corporations achieve larger profits

  [C] guarantee the bonuses of top executives

  [D] build a new system of financial regulation

  22. Alfred Marshall is ......

  [A] the conditions for generating quick profits

  [B] “short-termism” in economic activities

  [C] governments’ impatience in decision-making

  [D] the solid structure of publicly traded companies

  23. It is argued that the influence of transient ......

  [A] temporary

  [B] indirect

  [C] minimal

  [D] adverse

  24. The US and France ......

  [A] the significance of long-term thinking

  [B] the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”

  [C] the approaches to promoting “long-termism”

  [D] the prevalence of short-term thinking

  25. Which of the following ......

  [A] Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers

  [B] Failure of Quarterly Capitalism

  [C] Decisiveness Required of Top Executives

  [D] Patience as a Corporate Virtue

  Text 2

  Grade inflation—the gradual increase in average GPAs (grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are......

  The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates......

  College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty...... on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money......

  Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead to a job......

  26. What is commonly regarded ......

  [A] The change of course catalogs.

  [B] Students’ indifference to GPAs.

  [C] Colleges’ neglect of GPAs.

  [D] The influence of consumer culture.

  27. What was the original purpose ......

  [A] To help freshmen adapt to college learning.

  [B] To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.

  [C] To prepare graduates for a challenging future.

  [D] To increase universities’ income from tuition.

  28. According to Paragraph 5, grade .......

  [A] obtain more financial support

  [B] boost their student enrollments

  [C] improve their teaching quality

  [D] meet local governments’ needs

  29. What does the phrase “to be.....

  [A] To counterbalance each other.

  [B] To complement each other.

  [C] To be identical with each other.

  [D] To be contradictory to each other.

  30. The author examines the practice......

  [A] assessing its feasibility

  [B] analyzing the causes behind it

  [C] comparing different views on it

  [D] listing its long-run effects

  Text 3

  This year marks exactly two centuries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable .......

  Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions: “What is intelligence, identity, or consciousness? What makes humans humans?”

  What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans

  Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist ......

  But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. .....

  Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, ......

  On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It ......  While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.

  To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s ......

  31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein......

  [A] fascinates AI scientists all over the world

  [B] involves some concerns raised by Al today

  [C] has remained popular for as long as 200 years

  [D] has sparked serious ethical controversies

  32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current ......

  [A] is too limited for us to reproduce it

  [B] can be misleading to robot making

  [C] helps explain artificial intelligence

  [D] inspires popular sci-fi TV series

  33. The solution to the ......

  [A] causes little public concern

  [B] can hardly ever be found

  [C] is still beyond our capacity

  [D] has aroused much curiosity

  34. The author’s attitude toward.......

  [A] respect

  [B] skepticism

  [C] contempt

  [D] affirmation

  35. Which of the following would be .....

  [A] AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants

  [B] The Conscience of Al: Complex But Inevitable

  [C] Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI

  [D] Al Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control

  Text 4

  States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision .....

  The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them ......  The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office .....,

  Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant ......

  The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals......  Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. ......

  Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones.......

  36. The Supreme Court......

  [A] better businesses’ relations with states

  [B] put most online businesses in a dilemma

  [C] make more online shoppers pay sales tax

  [D] force some sates to cut sales tax

  37. It can be learned from......

  [A] have led to the dominance of e-commerce

  [B] have cost consumers a lot over the years

  [C] were widely criticized by online purchasers

  [D] were considered unfavorable by states

  38. According to Justice......

  [A] hindered economic development

  [B] brought prosperity to the country

  [C] harmed fair market competition

  [D] boosted growth in states’ revenue

  39. Who are most likely to ......

  [A] Internet entrepreneurs.

  [B] Big-chain owners.

  [C] Third-party sellers.

  [D] Small retailers.

  40. In dealing with the ......

  [A] gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences

  [B] describes the long and complicated process of its making

  [C] presents its main points with conflicting views on them

  [D] cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications

  

2019考研英语试题

 

  

2019考研英语原题

 

  

2019考研英语试题

 

  

2019考研英语试题

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